1972: Nichini, FM. (1972). Inflammatory carcinoma of the breast in a 12-year-old girl. Archives of Surgery, 105(3), 505-8. No abstract available.

Carcinoma of the breast in the female child and adolescent is extremely rare. Approximately a dozen cases below the age of 20 can be accepted as truly proved. The case presented here is of further interest, since we believe it to be the first so-called inflammatory breast carcinoma described in a child. The lesion progressed rapidly locally with skin erythema, edema, and fixation over half the breast. The affected breast was enlarged and generally replaced by tumor with fixation to the chest wall; a single ipsilateral axillary node was present. Treatment with radiotherapy produced temporary local control. Spread followed to the contralateral breast and ovaries. Progression of the disease was not checked despite bilateral oophorectomy and chemotherapy. Mammography and thermography were helpful in confirming clinical impressions.

Report of a Case: A 12-year-old girl consulted her family physician for a cutaneous eruption of the whole body, which was diagnosed as a viral exanthem. Results of physical examination at that time revealed a mass in the upper part of the left breast above a partially retracted nipple, and a definite enlargement of the left breast relative to the right.

Neither the patient nor her mother was aware of any abnormality in the breast at the time of the consultation. Two days later, a biopsy was performed and the mass was reported as an infiltrating carcinoma.

The skin over the whole left breast was erythematous and edematous, with all the clinical signs of an inflammatory carcinoma … It should be pointed out that the patient had been menstruating, albeit irregularly, since the age of 11.

The sections of breast tissue stained with hematoxylin-eosin exhibited many nests and cords of neoplastic epithelial cells not only infiltrating a desmoplastic breast stroma but also infiltrating and plugging dilated lymphatic channels. This feature was especially prominent within the deep breast parenchyma and is similar to the more characteristic dermal lymphatic plugging seen in classic inflammatory carcinoma. The microscopic finding, combined with the classic gross lesion, were compatible with inflammatory carcinoma of the breast.

1977: Tabbane, F. (1977). Clinical and prognostic features of a rapidly progressing breast cancer in Tunisia. Cancer, 40(1), 376-82. Abstract below:

Clinical and radiographic examination of 581 patients with histologically verified breast cancer has permitted us to define a subgroup having a significantly poorer prognosis than other patients. Their condition, called “poussee evolutive” (rapidly progressing), is characterized by rapid tumor growth and/or inflammation adjacent to the tumor. Statistical analysis of the survival of M0 patients (412 of the 581) shows that the diagnosis of “poussee evolutive” provides prognostic information beyond that given by T and N classifications and after delay between initial symptoms and diagnosis have been considered. Six years of clinical experience with this condition are discussed.

1978: Lucas, FV., & Perez-Mesa, C. (1978). Inflammatory carcinoma of the breast. Cancer, 41(4), 1595-1605. Abstract below:

Fifty-eight patients with clinical inflammatory breast carcinoma and 15 patients with “occult” inflammatory cancer (dermal lymphatic carcinomatosis without clinical inflammation) are grouped and reviewed to determine whether diagnosis is pathologic or clinical. All cases represent a retrospective study of records from the Ellis Fischel State Cancer Hospital, Columbia, Missouri. Lesions of clinically apparent and occult inflammatory carcinoma demonstrate similar gross and microscopic growth patterns, histologic types, axillary involvement and early widespread metastases. Regardless of pathologic evidence of dermal lymphatic tumor, patients with clinical inflammation had rapid deterioration. Cases with only a pathological diagnosis were slightly less fulminant in progression. Either clinical or pathologic criteria justify use of the term “inflammatory breast carcinoma” to indicate short-term prognosis despite available treatment.

1982: Costa, J., et al. (1982). Histopathological features of rapidly progressing breast carcinoma in Tunisia: a study of 94 cases. International Journal of Cancer, 30(1), 35-37. Abstract below:

The histological features of 94 cases of carcinoma of the breast seen in Tunisia were recorded and subsequently correlated with the clinical classification of the patients in terms of poussee evolutive (PEV) categories. Histological features analyzed in the breast tissues and skin included tumor type, nuclear grade, number of mitoses, involvement of the dermis, cutaneous inflammatory infiltrate and edema. Twenty-eight percent of the cases in which the skin was examined showed tumor emboli in the lymphatics of the dermis. The frequency of cutaneous permeation correlated with the PEV categories. The percentage of cases with nuclear grade 3 was higher for the group with rapid progression of the disease (PEV 1,2,3) than for the cases belonging to the PEV-0 category (90% versus 64.2%). The present study demonstrates that a large proportion of breast carcinoma patients in Tunisia suffer from “inflammatory carcinoma of the breast.”

1984: Levine, PH., et al. (1984). Increased incidence of mouse mammary tumor virus-related antigen in Tunisian patients with breast cancer. International Journal of Cancer, 33(3), 305-8. Abstract below:

We conclude that the identification of gp52-related antigens in the breast cancer biopsies from North African women has implications different from those observed in other populations. While thus far not indicative of disease aggressiveness and prognosis, the higher frequency of detectable antigen in comparison to biopsies obtained from patients born in the United States and Europe may have relevance to the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease.