Selected 2012 Inflammatory Breast Cancer published research.

Through the courtesy of the US National Library of Medicine and the PubMed Database, we are pleased to offer this easy pre-formatted search link to peer-reviewed research of inflammatory breast cancer from 1/1/2012 to the present. Click here to view the search results.

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Chow, H., et al. (2012). Diverse presentations of carcinoma erysipelatoides from a teaching hospital in Australia. Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine. doi: 10.1155/2012/134938. Abstract below, free full text may be found at link above.

Inflammatory breast carcinoma is a rare form of advanced breast cancer which carries a poor prognosis, even with treatment. Diagnosis is reached on clinical and pathological grounds; however, due to its propensity to mimic other conditions, it may often be delayed or missed by attending physicians. This case series describes four patients seen at our institution with a diagnosis of inflammatory breast cancer; 3 patients had a history of previously treated breast malignancy. In these cases, the emergence of a new breast lesion evaded initial diagnosis due to incomplete initial physical examination, falsely reassuring imaging results, lack of recognition that a cellulitis picture can resemble metastatic carcinoma, and inconclusive initial biopsy sections. These obstacles to achieve diagnosis serve to further worsen the prognosis by delaying the initiation of multimodality treatment which can improve survival. The purpose of our paper is to increase awareness among breast cancer specialists of the importance of undressing the patient for basic clinical examination of the breasts, recognition of the appearances of this type of local recurrence of breast cancer, and not to rely purely on ultrasound and mammography due to delay in diagnosis in some of our local cases. Sometimes deeper sections and repeat biopsies are needed to make the diagnosis.

Bertucci, F. (2012). 8q24 cancer risk allele associated with major metastatic risk in inflammatory breast cancer. PLoS One, 7(5), Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3362533/
Abstract below, free full text available at link in article title.

BACKGROUND:
Association studies have identified low penetrance alleles that participate to the risk of cancer development. The 8q24 chromosomal region contains several such loci involved in various cancers that have been recently studied for their propensity to influence the clinical outcome of prostate cancer. We investigated here two 8q24 breast and colon cancer risk alleles in the close vicinity of the MYC gene for their role in the occurrence of distant metastases.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:
A retrospective series of 449 patients affected with breast or colon adenocarcinoma was genotyped for the rs13281615 and/or rs6983267 SNPs. Statistical analyses were done using the survival package v2.30 in the R software v2.9.1. The two SNPs did not influence the development of distant metastases of colon cancer; rs6983267 showed a mild effect on breast cancer. However, this effect was greatly emphasized when considering inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) solely. Replicated on a larger and independent series of IBC the contribution of the genotype to the metastatic risk of IBC was found an independent predictor of outcome (p = 2e-4; OR 8.3, CI95:2.6-33).
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:
Our study shows first that the monitoring of this specific germline variation may add a substantial tool for IBC prognostication, an aggressive disease that evolves towards distant metastases much more frequently than non-IBC and for which no reliable prognostic factor is available in medical practice. Second, it more generally suggests that risk alleles, while associated with low susceptibility, could correlate with a high risk of metastasis.

Pierga, J. Y., et al. (2012). Neoadjuvant bevacizumab, trastuzumab, and chemotherapy for primary inflammatory HER2-positive breast cancer (BEVERLY-2): an open-label, single-arm phase 2 study. The Lancet Oncology, 13(4), 375-84. Abstract below, free full text not available.

BACKGROUND:
Bevacizumab and trastuzumab are efficacious for treatment of advanced or HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer; however, few data exist for this regimen in inflammatory breast cancer. In our phase 2 trial, we aimed to assess efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant bevacizumab combined with trastuzumab and chemotherapy in patients with primary HER2-positive inflammatory breast cancer.
METHODS:
In our phase 2, multicentre, open-label, single-arm, non-comparative trial, we enrolled women (aged ? 18 years) with histologically confirmed HER2-positive non-metastatic inflammatory breast cancer at private or public oncology centres in France. Before surgery, patients were treated with fluorouracil, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide, and bevacizumab (cycles 1-4) and docetaxel, bevacizumab, and trastuzumab (cycles 5-8) in 3-week cycles. After surgery, patients received
adjuvant radiotherapy, trastuzumab, and bevacizumab. For the primary endpoint, we assessed the proportion of patients who achieved a pathological complete response (defined by central review of surgical specimens according to Sataloff classification, counting missing data as failure) and adverse events in all enrolled patients. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00717405.
FINDINGS:
Between Oct 23, 2008, and Oct 28, 2009, we enrolled 52 patients at 21 centres. 42 (81%) of 52 patients received all eight cycles of neoadjuvant therapy and 49 (94%) underwent surgery. After neoadjuvant therapy, 33 of 52 patients had a pathological complete response according to central review (63·5%, 95% CI 49·4-77·5). The most common adverse events were asthenia and nausea (both occurred in 36 [69%] of 52 patients). 25 (48%) patients had grade 3-4 neutropenia, which was the most common grade 3-4 adverse event. Only one grade 3 or worse adverse event regarded as related to bevacizumab was reported (hypertension, one patient). Four patients (8%) had cardiac failure.
INTERPRETATION:
Neoadjuvant treatment with bevacizumab, trastuzumab, and chemotherapy was efficacious and well tolerated in patients with previously untreated primary inflammatory breast cancer. Further confirmation of use of bevacizumab in inflammatory breast cancer is needed.

Hillyer, R. L., et al. (2012). Differential effects of vitamin D treatment on inflammatory and non-inflammatory breast cancer cell lines. Clinical & Experimental Metastasis. [Epub ahead of print] Abstract below, free full text not available.

Vitamin D is a known regulator of breast cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion and differentiation in vitro. Recent studies have suggested a preventative role for vitamin D in breast cancer development and suggested a possible therapeutic application of vitamin D for patients with various forms of breast cancer. Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a highly aggressive and phenotypically unique form of breast cancer that has a very poor prognosis. IBC invades the dermal lymphatics of the breast as tumor emboli early in the course of the disease. Because of the invasive nature of IBC, novel therapeutics are needed desperately. In the current study we examined the effect of the active form of vitamin D, calcitriol, treatment on the aggressive IBC phenotype. Herein we demonstrate that although the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is present in both IBC and non-IBC cell lines, the effect of vitamin D treatment is significant only on the IBC cells. SUM149 IBC cells showed increased protein concentration in response to 24 h of calcitriol exposure; likely mediated by an increase in protein synthesis as opposed to increased cellular proliferation. In addition, treatment with 100 nM calcitriol showed a significant decrease in SUM149 migration (67.8 % decrease, P = 0.030), invasion (43.9 % decrease, P = 0.015), and tumor spheroid size (69.4 % decrease, P = 0.018) compared to nontreated control groups. Finally, calcitriol treatment of SUM149 cells led to significantly fewer IBC experimental metastases as compared to control. Our study demonstrates that calcitriol treatment of SUM149 affected several of the processes important for IBC metastasis but had little effect on MDA-MB-231 cells. Therefore, calcitriol treatment may have the potential to decrease the rate and incidence of metastasis in IBC patients.

Dawood, S., et al. (2012). Identifying factors that impact survival among women with inflammatory breast cancer. Annals of Oncology: the Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology, 23(4), 870-5. Abstract below, free full text not available.

BACKGROUND:
The objective of this retrospective study was to determine factors impacting survival among women with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC).
METHODS:
The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Registry (SEER) was searched to identify women with stage III/IV IBC diagnosed between 2004 and 2007. IBC was identified within SEER as T4d disease as defined by the sixth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer. The Kaplan-Meier product-limit method was used to describe inflammatory breast cancer-specific survival (IBCS). Cox models were fitted to assess the multivariable relationship of various patient and tumor characteristics and IBCS.
RESULTS:
Two thousand three hundred and eighty-four women with stage IIIB/C and IV IBC were identified. Two-year IBCS among women with stage IIIB, IIIC and IV disease was 81%, 67% and 42%, respectively (P < 0.0001). In the multivariable model, patients with stage IIIB disease and those with stage IIIC disease had a 63% [hazard ratio (HR) 0.373, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.296-0.470, P < 0.001] and 31% (HR 0.691, 95% CI 0.512-0.933, P = 0.016) decreased risk of death from IBC, respectively, compared with women with stage IV disease. Other factors significantly associated with decreased risk of death from IBC included low-grade tumors, being of white/other race, undergoing surgery, receiving radiation therapy and hormone receptor-positive disease. Among women with stage IV disease, those who underwent surgery of their primary had a 51% decreased risk of death compared with those who did not undergo surgery (HR = 0.489, 95% CI 0.339-0.704, P < 0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS:
Although IBC is an aggressive subtype of locally advanced breast cancer, it is heterogeneous with various factors affecting survival. Furthermore, our results indicate that a subgroup of women with stage IV IBC may benefit from aggressive combined modality management.

Kim, M. M., et al. (2012). Bolus electron conformal therapy for the treatment of recurrent inflammatory breast cancer: a case report. Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Dosimetrists , 37(2), 208-13. Abstract below, free full text not available.

The treatment of locoregionally recurrent breast cancer in patients who have previously undergone radiation therapy is challenging. Special techniques are often required that both eradicate the disease and minimize the risks of retreatment. We report the case of a patient with an early-stage left breast cancer who developed inflammatory-type recurrence requiring re-irradiation of the chest wall using bolus electron conformal therapy with image-guided treatment delivery. The patient was a 51-year-old woman who had undergone lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and adjuvant whole-breast radiation therapy for a stage I left breast cancer in June 1998. In March 2009, she presented at our institution with biopsy-proven recurrent inflammatory carcinoma and was aggressively treated with multi-agent chemotherapy followed by mastectomy that left a positive surgical margin. Given the patient's prior irradiation and irregular chest wall anatomy, bolus electron conformal therapy was used to treat her chest wall and draining lymphatics while sparing the underlying soft tissue. The patient still had no evidence of disease 21 months after treatment. Our results indicate that bolus electron conformal therapy is an accessible, effective radiation treatment approach for recurrent breast cancer in patients with irregular chest wall anatomy as a result of surgery. This approach may complement standard techniques used to reduce locoregional recurrence in the postmastectomy setting.

Yamauchi, H., et al. (2012). Inflammatory breast cancer: what we know and what we need to learn. The Oncologist, 17(7), 891-9. Abstract below, free full text not available.

PURPOSE:
We review the current status of multidisciplinary care for patients with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) and discuss what further research is needed to advance the care of patients with this disease.
DESIGN:
We performed a comprehensive review of the English-language literature on IBC through computerized literature searches.
RESULTS:
Significant advances in imaging, including digital mammography, high-resolution ultrasonography with Doppler capabilities, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography-computed tomography, have improved the diagnosis and staging of IBC. There are currently no established molecular criteria for distinguishing IBC from noninflammatory breast cancer. Such criteria would be helpful for the diagnosis and development of novel targeted therapies. Combinations of neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy have led to an improved prognosis; however, the overall 5-year survival rate for patients with IBC remains very low (?30%). Sentinel lymph node biopsy and skin-sparing mastectomy are not recommended for patients with IBC.
CONCLUSION:
Optimal management of IBC requires close coordination among medical, surgical, and radiation oncologists, as well as radiologists and pathologists. There is a need to identify molecular changes that define the pathogenesis of IBC to enable eradication of IBC with the use of IBC-specific targeted therapies.

Schlichting, J. A., et al. (2012). Inflammatory and non-inflammatory breast cancer survival by socioeconomic position in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, 1990-2008. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 134(3), 1257-68. Abstract below, free full text not available.

Although it has been previously reported that patients with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) experience worse survival than patients with other breast cancer (BC) types, the socioeconomic and ethnic factors leading to this survival difference are not fully understood. The association between county-level percent of persons below the poverty level and BC-specific (BCS) survival for cases diagnosed from 1990 to 2008 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database linked to census derived county attributes was examined. A sub-analysis of cases from 2000 to 2008 also examined BCS survival by an index combining percent below poverty and less than high school graduates as well as metropolitan versus non-metropolitan county of residence. The Kaplan-Meier estimator was used to construct survival curves by stage, inflammatory status, and county-level socioeconomic position (SEP). Stage and inflammatory status stratified proportional hazards models, adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, tumor and treatment characteristics were used to determine the hazard of BCS death by county-level SEP. Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicated IBC has worse survival than stage matched non-IBC, (stage III IBC median survival = 4.75 years vs. non-IBC = 13.4 years, p < 0.0001). Residing in a lower SEP, non-metro county significantly worsens BCS survival for non-IBC in multivariate proportional hazards models. African American cases appear to have worse survival than non-Hispanic Whites regardless of inflammatory status, stage, county-level SEP, tumor, or treatment characteristics. This is the first study to examine IBC survival by SEP in a nation-wide population-based tumor registry. As this analysis found generally poorer survival for IBC, regardless of SEP or race/ethnicity, it is important that interventions that help educate women on IBC symptoms target women in various SEP and race/ethnicity groups.

VanderWalde, A., et al. (2012). Long-term survival after high-dose chemotherapy followed by peripheral stem cell rescue for high-risk, locally  advanced/inflammatory, and metastatic breast cancer. Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplation: Journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow  Transplantation, 18(8), 1273-80. Abstract below, free full text not available.

Patients with high-risk locally advanced/inflammatory and oligometastatic (?3 sites) breast cancer frequently relapse or experience early progression. High-dose chemotherapy combined with peripheral stem cell rescue may prolong progression-free survival/relapse-free survival (PFS/RFS) and overall survival (OS). In this study, patients initiated high-dose chemotherapy with STAMP-V (carboplatin, thiotepa, and cyclophosphamide), ACT (doxorubicin, paclitaxel, and cyclophosphamide), or tandem melphalan and STAMP-V. Eighty-six patients were diagnosed with locally advanced/inflammatory (17 inflammatory) breast cancer, and 12 were diagnosed with oligometastatic breast cancer. Median follow-up was 84 months (range, 6-136 months) for patients with locally advanced cancer and 40 months (range, 24-62 months) for those with metastatic cancer. In the patients with locally advanced cancer, 5-year RFS and OS were 53% (95% CI, 41%-63%) and 71% (95% CI, 60%-80%), respectively, hormone receptors were positive in 74%, and HER2 overexpression was seen in 23%. In multivariate analysis, hormone receptor-positive disease and lower stage were associated with better 5-year RFS (60% for ER [estrogen receptor]/PR [progesterone receptor]-positive versus 30% for ER/PR-negative; P < .01) and OS (83% for ER/PR-positive versus 38% for ER/PR-negative; P < .001). In the patients with metastatic cancer, 3-year PFS and OS were 49% (95% CI, 19%-73%) and 73% (95% CI, 38%-91%), respectively. The favorable long-term RFS/PFS and OS for high-dose chemotherapy with peripheral stem cell rescue in this selected patient population reflect the relative safety of the procedure and warrant validation in defined subgroups through prospective, randomized, multi-institutional trials.