Selected 2016 Inflammatory Breast Cancer published research.

Through the courtesy of the US National Library of Medicine and the PubMed Database, we are pleased to offer this easy pre-formatted search link to peer-reviewed research of inflammatory breast cancer from 1/1/2016 to the present. Click here to view the search results.

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Atkinson, R. L., et al. (2016, May). Epidemiological risk factors associated with inflammatory breast cancer subtypes. Cancer Causes Control, 27(3), 359-66. Free full text is not available.

In this single-institution case-control study, we identified risk factors associated with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) subtypes based on staining of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and expression of human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2neu) to determine distinct etiologic pathways.
METHODS:
We identified 224 women with IBC and 396 cancer-free women seen at the MD Anderson Cancer Center. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between breast cancer risk factors and the IBC tumor subtypes: luminal (ER+ and/or PR+/HER2neu-), HER2neu+ (any ER and PR, HER2neu+), and triple-negative (ER-/PR-/HER2neu-).
RESULTS:
In multivariable analysis, compared with women age ≥26 at first pregnancy, women age <26 had a higher risk of triple-negative IBC (OR 3.32, 95% CI 1.37-8.05). Women with a history of breast-feeding had a lower risk of triple-negative (OR 0.30; 95% CI 0.15-0.62) and luminal IBC (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.18-0.68). A history of smoking was associated with an increased risk of luminal IBC (OR 2.37; 95% CI 1.24-4.52). Compared with normal-weight women, those who were overweight or obese (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) had a higher risk of all three tumor subtypes (p < 0.01 for all subtypes).
CONCLUSION:
Overweight or obese status is important modifiable risk factor for IBC of any subtype. Modifiable risk factors, age at first pregnancy (≥26), breast-feeding, and smoking may be associated with specific IBC subtypes. These results highlight the importance of evaluating epidemiologic risk factors for IBC for the identification of subtype-specific prevention strategies.

Tabouret, E., et al. (2016). MMP2 and MMP9 serum levels are associated with favorable outcome in patients with inflammatory breast cancer treated with bevacizumab-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy.neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the BEVERLY-2 study. Oncotarget. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.7612. Free full text is available, click link in title.

PURPOSE:
Addition of bevacizumab to trastuzumab-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-positive inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) was associated with favorable outcome in the BEVERLY-2 phase II trial. Circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9 were correlated to high response rate and prolonged survival in high-grade glioma treated with bevacizumab. We examined the prognostic impact of MMP2 and MMP9 serum levels in BEVERLY-2 patients.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:
MMP2 and MMP9 serum levels were assessed using ELISA at baseline and before surgery in 45/52 available samples. Correlations were tested with pathological complete response (pCR), disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS).
RESULTS:
Baseline (b) MMP2 and MMP9 serum levels were independent from patient characteristics and circulating tumor or endothelial cells, and were not correlated to pCR. High bMMP2 was correlated to better DFS (p=0.001) and OS (p=0.032), while low bMMP9 was correlated to better OS (p=0.022) and tended to be associated with longer DFS (p=0.071). In multivariate analyses, bMMP2 (p=0.003, Hazard Ratio [HR]: 0.115) and bMMP9 (p=0.041, HR: 3.511) remained correlated to DFS. As continuous variables, bMMP2 was associated with relapse (p=0.002) and death (p=0.049), while bMMP9 was associated with death (p=0.035). During treatment, significant increase in MMP2 and decrease in MMP9 levels (p<0.001 for both) were observed in 100% and 87% of patients respectively.
CONCLUSIONS:
High bMMP2 and low bMMP9 serum levels were associated with better survival in HER2-positive IBC patients treated with bevacizumab- and trastuzumab-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Their predictive value of bevacizumab benefit should be evaluated in a randomized trial.

Kurtz, J., et al. (2016, May). A case of a bilateral inflammatory breast cancer: a case report. The Breast Journal, 22(3), 342-46. doi:10.1111/tbj.12578. Free full text is not available.

Cases of bilateral inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) are extremely rare. Our search criteria only found one other record of metachronous bilateral IBC (1). We present the case of a patient who was treated for IBC with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, modified radical mastectomy (MRM), and whole breast radiation. Less than 1 year later, the patient had a recurrence of IBC on the left chest wall with in the radiated field, as well as a new IBC on the contralateral side. Bilateral IBC is extremely rare. This entity can present challenges for the standard treatment of IBC with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, MRM, and whole breast radiation (2). Our case study shows the importance of scheduled routine imaging, screening with physical examination after IBC management, and good patient compliance in this aggressive disease (3).

Raghav, K., et al. (2016). Inflammatory breast cancer: a distinct clinicopathological entity transcending histological distinction. PLoS One, 11(1). Free full text is available, click link in title.

Abstract
INTRODUCTION:
Although well recognized in breast oncology literature, histologic subtypes have not been previously described in inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). The purpose of this study was to describe lobular subtype in IBC and assess the impact of histology on patient outcomes.
METHODS:
We performed a retrospective analysis of 659 IBC patients at MD Anderson Cancer Center between January 1984 and December 2009. Patients with Invasive Lobular, Mixed Invasive Ductal and Lobular, or Invasive Ducal Carcinomas (ILC, MIC, IDC, respectively) comprise the subject of this report. Patient characteristics and survival estimates were compared by using chi-square test and Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank statistic. Cox proportional hazards models were fit to determine association of histology with outcomes after adjustment for other characteristics.
RESULTS:
A total of 30, 37, and 592 patients were seen to have invasive lobular, mixed, or ductal histology, respectively. Grade 3 tumors were more common in the ductal group (78%) than in the lobular (60%) or mixed (61%) group (P = 0.01). The 3-year overall survival rates were 68%, 64%, and 62% in the lobular, mixed, and ductal groups, respectively (P = 0.68). After adjustment, histology did not have a significant effect on death in the lobular group (HR = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.26-1.94; P = 0.50) or mixed group (HR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.25-1.13; P = 0.10) compared with the ductal group.
CONCLUSION:
In this cohort of IBC patients, lobular histology was seen in 4.5% cases. Histology does not appear to have a significant effect on survival outcomes in IBC patients, unlike in patients with non-inflammatory breast cancer (n-IBC), indicating the distinct biological behavior of the IBC phenotype.

Abeywardhana, DY, et al. (2016). Review of ultrasound appearance in inflammatory breast cancer: A pictorial essay. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology, 60(1), 83-87. Free full text is not available.

Abstract
Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare malignancy accounting for 1-2% of breast cancers. It has an aggressive clinical presentation and poor prognosis. The sonographic findings in 41 patients with a clinical diagnosis of IBC and biopsy-proven breast malignancy are presented in this study. The most common finding was the presence of skin thickening (92%). Multiple small anechoic spaces within the dermis, correlating with the presence of dermal lymphatic invasion by tumour emboli on histopathology were noted in approximately one-third of cases. Other sonographic findings included single or multiple masses, parenchymal oedema, axillary lymphadenopathy, echogenic foci consistent with microcalcifications and increased vascularity.

Denu, R. A., et al. (2016). Influence of patient, physician, and hospital characteristics on the receipt of guideline-concordant care for inflammatory breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiology, 40, 7-14. Free full text is not available.

Abstract
PURPOSE:
Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer for which treatments vary, so we sought to identify factors that affect the receipt of guideline-concordant care.
METHODS:
Patients diagnosed with IBC in 2004 were identified from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Data Quality and Patterns of Care Study, containing information from cancer registries in seven states. Variation in guideline-concordant care for IBC, based on National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines, was assessed according to patient, physician, and hospital characteristics.
RESULTS:
Of the 107 IBC patients in the study without distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis, only 25.8% received treatment concordant with guidelines. Predictors of non-concordance included patient age (≥70 years), non-white race, normal body mass index (BMI 18.5-25kg/m2), patients with physicians graduating from medical school >15 years prior, and smaller hospital size (<200 beds). IBC patients survived longer if they received guideline-concordant treatment based on either 2003 (p=0.06) or 2013 (p=0.06) NCCN guidelines.
CONCLUSIONS:
Targeting factors associated with receipt of care that is not guideline-concordant may reduce survival disparities in IBC patients. Prompt referral for neoadjuvant chemotherapy and post-operative radiation therapy is also crucial.