A Selection of IBC Research Abstracts Published in 2017

What is an abstract?

“An abstract of an article is a summary of the paper….If there is an introduction, it describes the background leading up to the research, and often mentions other similar studies. If well written, the introduction will bring readers up to speed on the field and leave them with an understanding of why the authors decided to do the experiments they are presenting.” [from the American Association for Cancer Research]

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If free full text is available, it will be mentioned, and a link provided in the title. If free full text is not available, copy the citation and check with a reference librarian at your local public library for assistance in obtaining a copy of the full article. The library may charge a fee or may be able to get the article at no charge.

van Uden DJP, et al. (2017) Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Assessment of Inflammatory Breast Cancer Prior to and After Neoadjuvant Treatment. Breast Care (Basel), 12(4):224-229. doi: 10.1159/000475745. Free full text is available at link in title.

BACKGROUND:
The aim of this study was to describe the dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) features of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) and to assess the value of DCE-MRI for the prediction of pathological complete response (pCR).
METHODS:
Image analysis was performed in 15 patients with IBC (cT4d) and 12 patients with non-IBC (cT2), and included the assessment of BIRADS characteristics, skin alterations, enhancement characteristics, and changes post chemotherapy. Sensitivity and specificity of DCE-MRI for the presence of residual disease were obtained. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated comparing the (preoperative) tumor size with the histological size.
RESULTS:
Skin thickening/enhancement (80%) and non-mass-like enhancement (66.7%) occurred more often in IBC (16.7 vs. 8.3% in non-IBC). In 2 of 3 cases of IBC, pCR was correctly predicted (sensitivity 92%, specificity 67%), compared to 3 of 5 cases in non-IBC (sensitivity 86%, specificity 40%). Lower peak enhancement might be associated with a higher likelihood of pCR in IBC. No other parameters predicted eventual pCR. In IBC, no correlation between preoperative tumor size and histological size was found (r = 0.22, p = 0.50), whereas in non-IBC, size estimations were more accurate (r = 0.75, p = 0.03).
CONCLUSION:
IBC is characterized on MRI by skin changes and non-mass-like enhancement. Radiological complete response seems indicative of pCR in IBC and non-IBC. Size estimation of residual disease in IBC appears to be inaccurate.

Li, J., et al. (2017) Outcomes of patients with inflammatory breast cancer by hormone receptor- and HER2-defined molecular subtypes: A population-based study from the SEER program. Oncotarget. 2017 Jul 25;8(30):49370-49379. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.17217. Free full text is available at link in title.

BACKGROUND:
The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of patients with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC), with emphasis on the role of molecular subtypes and radiotherapy.
METHODS:
A retrospective cohort study to investigate overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific mortality (BCSM) in patients with IBC was conducted using data obtained by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program from 2010-2013. Cox multivariate regression was used to calculate the adjusted Hazard Ratios (aHR).
RESULTS:
403 patients were eligible for this study. Patients in the group with hormone receptors (HR)+/HER2- subtype had an OS of 79.6% compared with 89.0 % in the group with (HR)+/HER2+ subtype and 76.8% in the HR-/HER2+ group and 62.9% in the triple-negative (TN) group. BCSM was 16.3% for the HR+/HER2- group, 9.8% for the HR+/HER2+ group, 21.7% for the HR-/HER2+ group, and 30.5% for the TN group. For distant metastases, the results showed that there was a high probability of bone metastasis in HR-positive groups, brain and liver metastasis in HER2-positive groups, and lung metastasis in the TN group. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that estrogen receptor and HER2 positivity were associated with better survival and that the TN subtype had a poorer OS and BCSM compared with other subtypes (P<0.05). Furthermore, patients who received radiotherapy were more likely to have improved survival (P< 0.05).
CONCLUSION:
Inflammatory breast cancer appears to alter the prognosis in association with the receptor status and molecular subtypes. Radiotherapy was still considered to be a crucial treatment for patients with IBC.

Yamashita, Y., et al. (2017) Effectiveness of Pertuzumab, Trastuzumab, and Docetaxel Combination Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for HER2-Positive Inflammatory Breast Cancer: A Case Report. Breast Care (Basel). 2017 Mar;12(1):45-47. doi: 10.1159/000457948. Free full text is available at link in title.

BACKGROUND:
Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive form of primary breast cancer.
CASE REPORT:
A 40-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for evaluation of an induration in the right breast, suspected to be breast cancer. The tumor was diagnosed as estrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative, HER2-positive, T4dN3cM0 stage IIIc IBC with axillary lymph node metastasis. Rather than surgical intervention, we chose a systemic treatment approach with pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel (PTD) combination therapy which was shown to be effective for HER2-positive IBC in the NeoSphere trial. After 4 cycles of treatment, the patient had a partial response, allowing mastectomy of the right breast and axillary lymph node dissection to achieve local control. We review this case because of the success of PTD combination neoadjuvant chemotherapy for HER2-positive IBC.
CONCLUSION:
To improve the poor prognosis of IBC, combined modality therapy is required, including chemotherapy and local treatment such as surgery and/or radiation therapy. In this case, combination neoadjuvant chemotherapy with PTD for HER2-positive IBC was effective, and this regimen may contribute to further improvements in the cure rate for this malignancy.

Denu, RA., et al. (2017) Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities Are More Pronounced in Inflammatory Breast Cancer Than Other Breast Cancers. Journal of Cancer Epidemiology. 2017;2017:7574946. doi: 10.1155/2017/7574946. Free full text is available at link in title.

Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare yet aggressive form of breast cancer. We examined differences in patient demographics and outcomes in IBC compared to locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) and all other breast cancer patients from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Data Quality and Patterns of Care Study (POC-BP), containing information from cancer registries in seven states. Out of 7,624 cases of invasive carcinoma, IBC and LABC accounted for 2.2% (N = 170) and 4.9% (N = 375), respectively. IBC patients were more likely to have a higher number (P = 0.03) and severity (P = 0.01) of comorbidities than other breast cancer patients. Among IBC patients, a higher percentage of patients with metastatic disease versus nonmetastatic disease were black, on Medicaid, and from areas of higher poverty and more urban areas. Black and Hispanic IBC patients had worse overall and breast cancer-specific survival than white patients; moreover, IBC patients with Medicaid, patients from urban areas, and patients from areas of higher poverty and lower education had worse outcomes. These data highlight the effects of disparities in race and socioeconomic status on the incidence of IBC as well as IBC outcomes. Further work is needed to reveal the causes behind these disparities and methods to improve IBC outcomes.

Cheng, YC., et al. (2017) Long-Term Outcome of Inflammatory Breast Cancer Compared to Non-Inflammatory Breast Cancer in the Setting of High-Dose Chemotherapy with Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. Journal of Cancer. 2017 Mar 25;8(6):1009-1017. doi: 10.7150/jca.16870.
Free full text is available at link in title.

Introduction: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare aggressive form of breast cancer. It is well known that the long-term survival and progression-free survival of IBC are worse than that of non-IBC. We report the long term outcomes of patients with IBC and non-IBC who had undergone high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) with autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT).
Methods: All 3387 patients with IBC or non-IBC who underwent HDC with AHCT between1990-2002 and registered with CIBMTR were included in this analysis. Transplant-related mortality (TRM), disease relapse/progression, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared between the two cohorts. Multivariate Cox regression model was used to determine the independent impact of stage on outcomes. Results: 527 patients with IBC and 2,860 patients with non-IBC were included; the median age at transplantation (47 vs 46 years old) and median follow-up period in the 2 groups (167 vs 168 months) were similar. The most common conditioning regimen was cyclophosphamide and carboplatin based in both groups (54% in IBC and 50% in non-IBC). AHCT was well tolerated in both groups. TRM was similar in both groups (one year TRM was 2% for IBC and 3% for non-IBC, p=0.16). The most common cause of death was disease progression or relapse (81% in IBC and 75% in non-IBC). The median survival for both IBC and non-IBC was the same at 40 months. The PFS at 10 years was 27% (95% CI: 23-31%) for IBC and 24% (95% CI: 22-26%) for non-IBC (p=0.21), and the OS at 10 years was 31% (95% CI: 27-35%) for IBC and 28% (95% CI: 26-30%) for non-IBC (p=0.16). In univariate analysis, patients with stage III IBC and no active diseases at transplantation had lower PFS and OS than that in non-IBC. In multivariate analysis, controlling for age, disease status at AHCT, hormonal receptor status, time from diagnosis to AHCT, and performance status at AHCT, patients with stage III IBC had higher mortality (HR 1.16, 95% CI: 1-1.34, p= 0.0459), worse PFS (HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.01-1.36, p= 0.0339) and higher risk of disease relapse/progression (HR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.06-1.45, p= 0.0082) as compared to stage III non-IBC. Amongst all patients a higher stage disease was associated with worse PFS, OS and disease relapse/progression.
Conclusions: Long-term outcomes of stage III IBC patients who underwent AHCT were poorer than that in non-IBC patients confirming that the poor prognosis of IBC even in the setting of HDC with AHCT.

Nakhlis, F., et al. (2017) The Impact of Residual Disease After Preoperative Systemic Therapy on Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Inflammatory Breast Cancer. Annals of Surical Oncoogy. 2017 Sep;24(9):2563-2569. doi: 10.1245/s10434-017-5903-6. Free full text is not available.

BACKGROUND:
Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive disease treated with multimodality therapy: preoperative systemic therapy (PST) followed by modified radical mastectomy (MRM), chest wall and regional nodal radiotherapy, and adjuvant biologic therapy and/or endocrine therapy when appropriate. In non-IBC, the degree of pathologic response to PST has been shown to correlate with time to recurrence (TTR) and overall survival (OS). We sought to determine if pathologic response correlates with oncologic outcomes of IBC patients.
METHODS:
Following review of IBC patients’ records (1997-2014), we identified 258 stage III IBC patients; 181 received PST followed by MRM and radiotherapy and were subsequently analyzed. Pathologic complete response (pCR) to PST, hormone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, grade, and histology were evaluated as predictors of TTR and OS by Cox model.
RESULTS:
Overall, 95/181 (52%) patients experienced recurrence; 93/95 (98%) were distant metastases (median TTR 3.2 years). Seventy-three patients (40%) died (median OS 6.9 years). pCR was associated with improved TTR (hazard ratio [HR] 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.09-0.46, p < 0.01, univariate; HR 0.17, 95% CI 0.07-0.41, p < 0.0001, multivariate) and improved OS (HR 0.26, 95% CI 0.11-0.65, p < 0.01, univariate). In patients with pCR, grade III (HR 1.91, 95% CI 1.16-3.13, p = 0.01), and triple-negative phenotype (HR 3.54, 95% CI 1.79-6.98, p = 0.0003) were associated with shorter TTR, while residual ductal carcinoma in situ was not (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.53-1.35, p = 0.48, multivariate).
CONCLUSIONS:
In stage III IBC, pCR was associated with prognosis, further influenced by grade, hormone receptor, and HER2 status. Investigating mechanisms that contribute to better response to PST could help improve oncologic outcomes in IBC.